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Active surveillance – Often used for close monitoring of the cancer with blood tests, frequent clinical, radiological and biopsy examinations, at regular intervals to see if the cancer is re-growing or changing.

Adrenal gland – A gland that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline and noradrenaline which have actions in the body such as controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and other functions.

Adverse effect – An undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery, or radiotherapy.

Androgens – (testosterone and other androgenic hormones) stimulate or control the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics.

Anus – The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia – Condition in which the prostate is increased in size due to an increase in the number of cells.

Benign prostatic hypertrophy – Condition in which the prostate is increased in size, due to a growth in the size of individual cells.

Benign Tumour – The term benign describes that tumour can only grow locally, does not infiltrate neighbouring tissues and does not metastasize. It can however affect function of involved organs or bordering tissues by its expansion.

Biopsy – A procedure in which tissue samples are removed with a special needle to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.

Bladder – A sac in the abdomen that receives urine from the kidneys and holds it ready for urination.

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Castrate/hormone resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) – The stage in which prostate cancer does not respond to treatment blocking testosterone effect or production.

Castration – This can be a surgical or chemical process in which the man loses the function of the testes. If a man is castrated he will be infertile and testosterone production will be greatly reduced.

Cells – The individual units that makes up tissues of the body.

Clinical trial – This describes the testing process of a new drug before it reaches the market and becomes widely available. The process involves many years of testing through several phases.

Computed Tomography Scan (CT / CAT scan) – A fast x-ray machine, assisted by a computer, used to take pictures of the inside of the body from different angles and reproduce the detailed 3D image of internal organs. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed in order to make the pictures show up more clearly.

CORE procedure – A technique of prostate biopsy.

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Dietician – An expert on diet and nutrition.

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Ejaculation – The ejection of semen (usually carrying sperm) from the man during sex. Usually accompanied by orgasm.

Erectile dysfunction or impotence – The inability to have an erection of the penis adequate for sexual intercourse.

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Genes – Information that is passed on from a parent to a child and help determine some of the characteristics of the child.

Genetic mutations – An alteration of a gene which can affect what information is passed on to a child from a parent.

Gland – An organ that secretes substances, such as hormones, into the body.

Gleason scores – A pathological classification of the prostate cancer by evaluation of the pattern of cancer cells growth. It is the sum of the dominant and secondary patterns, each numbered on scale 1 to 5. It helps to predict the tendency of a tumour in the prostate to spread to other organs.

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Hormone – A chemical produced by glands in the body. Hormones circulate around the body in the bloodstream and control the actions of certiain cells and organs.

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Implant – To insert or fix a tissue or an artificial object into a person’s body.

Inflamed, inflammation – A condition in which part of the body becomes red, swollen, hot, and often painful.

Inherited – This means you get a quality, characteristic, or predisposition genetically from your parents or ancestors.

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Laboratory – A room or building where scientific experiments, research, or teaching is carried out or where the manufacture of drugs or chemicals takes place.

Laparoscope or scope – A thin, tube like instrument with a light on the end, used to view tissues or organs in side the body.

Libido – Sexual desire.

Lymph – A colourless fluid containing white blood cells, which surrounds the tissues and drains through the lymphatic system into the bloodstream.

Lymph nodes or lymph glands – A mass of lymphatic tissue surrounded by connective tissue. Their job is to filter lymphatic fluid and store white blood cells.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – Radio waves and magnetic fields are used to create computerized pictures of the inside of the body. A dye may be injected into a vein in order to make the pictures show up more clearly.

Malignant Tumour – The term malignant describes predisposition of tumour to infiltrate and destroy neighbouring tissues and/or spread (metastasize) to other organs and destroy them.

Microscope – An instrument used for viewing very small objects, such as cells. It can magnify something several hundred times.

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Organs – A collection of tissues that form a unit with a common purpose.

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Pathologist – A doctor who looks for disease by studying cells and tissues under a microscope.

Pelvis / Pelvic area – The lower part of your abdomen.

Prostatitis – Inflammation of the prostate gland.

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Radiation – Energy that comes from a radioactive source or created by specialized machines and travels through space and may be able to penetrate various materials.

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy – Often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells.
1. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or long distance radiotherapy, in which a patient sits or lies on a couch and an external source of radiation is pointed at a particular part of the body.
2. Brachytherapy or short distance Internal radiotherapy, in which the radiation is delivered by placing radiation source(s) inside or next to the area requiring treatment.

Radioactive – Gives off radiation.

1. A radionuclide a radioactive chemical element with numerous variants called isotopes, some of them used for cancer therapy.
2. In colloquial terms understood as radiation treatment.
3. Radium 223 an isotope variant of Radium used in the management of prostate cancer that spread to bones.

Rectal – Of the rectum.

Rectum – The last few inches of the large intestine closest to the anus.

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Scrotum – The extrernal sac that contains the testicles.

Semen – The fluid that is released by the penis when you have an orgasm. Semen consists of sperm from the testicles and fluid from the prostate and other sex glands.

Seminal Fluid – Fluid from the prostate and other sex glands that help transport sperm out of the man’s body during orgasm.

Seminal Vesicle – A gland that helps produce semen.

Side-effects – In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a treatment.

Sperm banking – A method of freezing sperm so it can be used in the future if you wish to father children.

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Tissues – A group of cells.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) – A surgical procedure that involves cutting away a section of the prostate gland.

Tumour – An abnormal mass of tissue that can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancerous).

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Urethral sphincter – One of two muscles used to control the exit of urine in the urinary bladder through the urethra.

Urinary Incontinence – An inability to control the flow of urine and hold it in the bladder.

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Vaccine – The administration of a substance that triggers the bodies immune system to develop immunity to a disease.

Vasectomy – A surgical procedure for male sterilisation and/or permanent birth control.

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Watchful waiting (observation) – Sometimes used to describe a less intensive type of follow-up that may mean fewer tests and relying more on changes in a man’s symptoms to decide if treatment is needed.

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X-ray – High energy radiation is used to take pictures of the inside of the body.

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